|All Roads Lead to String Theory (Polchinski)|
Prior to the First Superstring Revolution
|Early History|| S-Matrix Theory|
|Bosonic String Theory|| Worldsheet|
Bosonic String Theory
String Perturbation Theory
|Supersymmetric Revolution|| Supersymmetry|
|First Superstring Revolution|| GSO Projection|
Type II String Theory
Type IIB String Theory
Type IIA String Theory
Type I String Theory
Type H String Theory
Type HO String Theory
Type HE String Theory
|Second Superstring Revolution|| T-Duality|
Horava-Witten String Theory
N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory
BFSS Matrix Theory
Matrix String Theory
Twistor String Theory
String Field Theory
Pure Spinor Formalism
After the Revolutions
|Phenomenology|| String Theory Landscape|
Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
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M-Theory is basically a strongly-coupled theory in 11 dimensions from which other String Theories can be derived from.
MotivationEdit this section
DualitiesEdit this section
In the Second Superstring Revolution, it was realised that the ordinary 5 String Theoryies were connected by 2 dualities, namely T-Duality and S-Duality/. To be specific, these dualities can be portrayed on a map as you can see in the image here.
At strong coupling (take the S-Dual), these become M-theory on a circle and the Horava-Witten String Theory, respectively. Various physicists, including Edward Witten, Ashok Sen, Nathan Seiberg, etc., postulated (see for example, ,  ) that these two String Theories are actually a \new theory, which came to be known as M-Theory compactified on a circle, and a line segment, respectively. This is also when Michael Duff coined the term "The Theory Formerly known as Strings" .
BranesEdit this section
While this is certnaily not proclaimable to be a motivation for M-Theory, it is worth stating here that the fundamental objects of M-Theory are not Strings, but actually 2-Branes and 5-Branes. This was not such a great surprise, because D-Branes already existed in ordinary String Theories.
SupergravityEdit this section
Following the "Dualities" section, it is obvious that M-Theory needs to be an 11-Dimensional theory. Now, 11-Dimensional Supergravity is of course, an 11-Dimensional Theory. Various Supergravity Theoryies, including Supergravity, for example, are low-energy limits of Superstring Theoryies. Thus, it was therefore perceived as possible, that 11-Dimensional Supergravity lies in the low-energy limit of M-Theory/ .
Non-Perturbative FormulationEdit this section
- Main Article: BFSS Matrix Theory
ReferencesEdit this section
- ↑ Witten, Edward (1996). "Five-Branes and M-Theory on an orbifold". Nucl.Phys.B 463 (6): 382-397. http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9512219v3.pdf.
- ↑ Sen, Ashok (1996). "Unification of String Dualities". Nucl.Phys.Proc.Suppl. 58 (6): 5-19. http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9609176.pdf.
- ↑ Townsend, Paul (1996). "Brane Surgery". Nucl.Phys.Proc.Suppl. 58 (6): 163-175. http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9512219v3.pdf.
- ↑ Duff, Michael. "The Theory Formerly known as Strings". http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9608117v3.pdf.
- ↑ Susskind, Leonard; Banks, T., Fischler, W., Shenker, S.. M Theory as a Matrix model: A conjecture. http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9610043v3.pdf.